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Hanhong (RINO) BAE


BS: Seoul National University (Korea)

MS : Oregon State University (USA)

Ph.D : Iowa State University (Genetics, USA)

USDA Plant Sciences Institute (MD, USA)

Yeungnam University (Korea)


Phone: 8253-810-3031 (office), Fax: 8253-810-4769, E-mail:

Lab manager

Soon Ok Rim 

BS, MS, Ph.D: Kyungpook National  University (Microbiology, Korea, 2009)

Project: Molecular plant-microbe (endophyte) interactions (Ginseng and Ginsenoside)


Research Professor

Sajad Ali

Ph.D: University of Madras (Microbiology, India, 2015)

Project: Plant-sound vibration interaction



Anshika Tyagi

Ph.D: Banasthali Vidyapith University (Biotechnology, India, 2018)

Project: Plant-sound vibration interaction and stress biology


Graduate students

Salsabila (Integrated Ph.D)

BS: Diponegoro University (Chemistry, Indonesia, 2016)

Project: Molecular plant-microbe (endophyte) interactions (Ginseng and Ginsenoside)


Suvin Park (Integrated Ph.D)

BS: Yeungnam University (Biotechnology, Korea, 2019)

Project: Plant-sound vibration interaction


사진 20220916_edited.jpg

Nola Suryani Putri (Ph.D)

MS: Andalas University (Biology, Indonesia, 2021)

BS: Andalas University (Biology, Indonesia, 2020)

Project: Molecular plant-microbe (enodphyte) interactions (Ginseng and Ginsenoside)



Hea Won Chun (MS)

BS: Yeungnam University (Biotechnology, 2023 Fall)

Project: Plant-sound vibration interactions 



​Minhui Seo (MS)

BS: Yeungnam University (Biotechnology, 2023 Fall)

Project: Plant-sound vibration interactions 


Undergrad students
Former members

Soojung Bae (MS)

MS: Yeungnam Univeristy (2012)

Current: Staff Scientist (HANBUL Cosmetics)


Deepak M. Kasote (Research Professor)

Ph.D: University of Pune (2011)

Current: Researcher (Texas A & M, USA)


Bosung Choi (MS)

MS: Yeungnam Univeristy (2013)

Current: Staff Scientist (Nature Glue Tech


Mayank Anand Gururani (RP)

Ph.D: Konkuk University, Korea (2013)

Current: Professor (UAE University)


Jonnggeun Kim (MS)

MS: Yeungnam University (2016)

Current: Manager (ENDOVISION, Daegu, Korea


Kaouthar Eljounaidi (Post-Doctoral Fellow)

Ph.D: University of Torino, Italy (2014)

Current: Research Scientist (Tunisian Gov.)


Minji Ryu (MS)

MS: Yeungnam University (2016)

Current: Research Scientist (발효미생물산업진흥원, Microbial Institute for Fermentation Industry, Sunchang, Jeollabuk-do, Korea)


Ratnesh Chandra Mishra (PD)

Ph.D: Delhi University, South Camp, India (2015)

Current: Research follow (Ghent University, Belgium)


Md. Emran Khan Chowdhury (Ph.D)

Ph.D: Yeungnam University (2016)

Current: Research Scientist (Bangladesh Gov.)


Md. Mohidul Hasan (RP)

Ph.D: Yeungnam University, Korea (2014)

Current: Professor (Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University,Bangladesh)



Young-Hwan Park (MS, Ph.D)

Ph.D: Yeungnam Univeristy (2017)

Current: Research Scientist (Nakdonggang

National Institute of Biological Resources,

국립낙동강생물자원관, Sangju, Gyeongbuk, Korea)


Hoki Kim (MS)

MS: Yeungnam University (2017)

Current: Staff Scientist (S & D Co., Ltd


Ritesh Ghosh (Ph.D & PD)

Ph.D: Yeungnam University (2016) 

Current: Research follow (INRA, France)



Sunkyung Yoon (MS, Staff Scientist)

MS: Yeungnam University (2016)

Project: Metabolic profiling using LC-MS/MS

Current: Self-employed


Tapan Kumar Mohanta (RP)

Ph.D: University of Torino, Italy (2011)

Project: Functional genomics 

Current: Professor (University of Nizwa, Oman)


Tufail Bashir (PD) 

Ph.D: Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India (2013) 

Project: Plant-sound vibration interaction

Current: Research fellow (Imperial College, UK)


Yunran Liu (MS)

MS: Yeungnam University (2018)

Project: Molecular plant-microbe (endophyte) interactions (pinewood nematode)

Current: Research Scientist (Kunming Edible Fungi Institute, China) 


Lakshmi Narayanan P (Ph.D)

Ph.D: Yeungnam University (2020)

MS: Madras Univeristy, India (2010)

Project: Molecular plant-microbe (endophyte) interactions (pinewood nematode)

Current: Korea University (Post-doc)



Luan Luong Chu (RP)

Ph.D: Sun Moon University, Korea (2018)

Project: Metabolic engineering of endophytes

(ginsenoside production)

Current: Professor (Phenikaa University, Vietnam)



Pragya Tiwari (RP)

Ph.D: CSIR-CIMAP (Biotechnology, India, 2016)

Project: Molecular plant-microbe (endophyte) interactions (Ginseng and Ginsenoside)



Jake picture.jpg

Jake Adolf V. Montecillo (Ph.D)

Ph.D: Yeungnam University (2024)

Project: Metabolic engineering of endophytes for ginsenoside production using CRISPR-Cas9

Current: Research Fellow (Gyeongbuk National University, School of Medicine)


Plant-sound vibration interactions

Being sessile, plants continuously deal with their dynamic and complex surroundings, identifying important cues and reacting with appropriate responses. Consequently, the sensitivity of plants has evolved to perceive a myriad of external stimuli, which ultimately ensures their successful survival. Research over past centuries has established that plants respond to environmental factors such as light, temperature, moisture, and mechanical perturbations (e.g. wind, rain, touch, etc.) by suitably modulating their growth and development. However, sound vibrations (SVs) as a stimulus have only started receiving attention relatively recently. SVs have been shown to increase the yields of several crops and strengthen plant immunity against pathogens. These vibrations can also prime the plants so as to make them more tolerant to impending drought. Plants can recognize the chewing sounds of insect larvae and the buzz of a pollinating bee, and respond accordingly. It is thus plausible that SVs may serve as a long-range stimulus that evokes ecologically relevant signaling mechanisms in plants. Studies have suggested that SVs increase the transcription of certain genes, soluble protein content, and support enhanced growth and development in plants. At the cellular level, SVs can change the secondary structure of plasma membrane proteins, affect microflament rearrangements, produce Ca2+ signatures, cause increases in protein kinases, protective enzymes, peroxidases, antioxidant enzymes, amylase, H+-ATPase / K+ channel activities, and enhance levels of polyamines, soluble sugars and auxin.

Model summarizing the molecular events triggered within a plant cell upon stimulation by sound vibration (SV).

(Mishra et al., Journal of Experimental Botany, 2016)

Click to read

Plant-endophyte interactions

Ginseng Endophytes and Ginsenosides

Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to Araliaeae and has been used for thousands of years as herbal medicine. Endophytes (fungi and bacteria) are defined as the microbes which spend the whole or part of their life cycles within and/or between plant cells, without causing harmful effects, and also can induce the production of phytochemicals to protect plants from phytopathogens. The purpose of this study is to induce plant secondary metabolites (e.g., ginsenosides) through the inoculation of ginseng endophytes. In addition, molecular plant-microbial interactions are being analyzed. For this study, we are using SEM,GC-MS,LC-MS/MS,NMR techniques.  


Schematic representation of the different factors influencing bacterial endophytes densities and dynamics: environmental conditions, the plant developmental and physiological state, the indigenous soil microflora, and the physicochemical structure of the soil. Additionally, presentation of the possible disease suppression mechanisms employed by bacterial endophytes in case of pathogenic attacks: antibiosis, ISR, growth promotion, competition, parasitism and signal interference. (Eljounaidi et al., Biological Control, 2016)

Metabolic Engineering of Ginseng Endophytes for the Production of Ginsenosides

Objectives of this project are to screen ginseng endophytes producing ginsenosides and to engineer the endophytes for maximum production. Other bioactive secondary metabolites also can be produced from endophytes from other medicinal plants.

metabolic engineering of endophyte.tif

An overview of the strategies of metabolic engineering for ginsenoside production in endophytes. (A) Heterologous gene expression. (B) Balancing and increasing metabolic flux. (C) Enzyme engineering strategies. (D) System approaches. (E) Fermentation strategies (Chu et al., Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 2020).

List of full publications


  1. MR Aluru, H Bae, D Wu, SR Rodermel (2001) The Arabidopsis immutans mutation affects plastid differentiation and the morphogenesis of white and green sectors in variegated plants.  Plant Physiology

  2. J Barr, WS White, L Chen, H Bae, S. Rodermel (2004) The GHOST terminal oxidase regulates developmental programming in tomato fruit.  Plant, Cell & Environment

  3. H Bae, EM Herman, RC Sicher (2005) Exogenous trehalose promotes non-structural carbohydrate accumulation and induces detoxification and stress response proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana grown in liquid culture.  Plant Science

  4. H Bae, EM Herman, BA Bailey, H-J Bae, RC Sicher (2005) Exogenous trehalose alters Arabidopsis transcripts involved in cell wall modification, abiotic stress, nitrogen metabolism, and plant defense.  Physiologia Plantarum

  5. H Bae, MS Kim, RC Sicher, H-J Bae, BA Bailey (2006) Necrosis-and ethylene-inducing peptide from Fusarium oxysporum induces a complex cascade of transcripts associated with signal transduction and cell death in Arabidopsis.  Plant Physiology

  6. H Bae, S-H Kim, MS Kim, RC Sicher, MD Strem, S Natarajan, BA Bailey (2008) The drought response of Theobroma cacao (cacao) and the regulation of genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis by drought and other stresses. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry

  7. H Bae, RC. Sicher, S-H Kim, MS Kim, MD Strem, BA Bailey (2009) Beneficial endophyte, Trichoderma hamatum, delays the onset of drought stress in Theobroma cacao.  Journal of Experimental Botany (BRIC highly cited paper)

  8. H Bae, DP Roberts, H-S Lim, MD Strem, S-C Park, C-M Ryu, RL Melnick, BA Bailey (2011) Endophytic Trichoderma isolates from tropical environments delay disease onset and induce resistance against Phytophthora capsici in hot pepper using multiple mechanisms. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions

  9. SU Park, H-S Lim, K-C Park and Y-H Park, H Bae (2012) Fungal endophytes from three cultivars of Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea. Journal of Ginseng Research

  10. Y-H Park, SG Lee, DJ Ahn, TR Kwon, SU Park, H-S Lim, H Bae (2012) Diversity of fungal endophytes in various tissues of Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea. Journal of Ginseng Research

  11. SU Park, DJ Ahn, H-J Jeon, TR Kwon, B Choi, H-S Lim, K-H Baek, H Bae (2012) Increase in the contents of ginsenosides in raw ginseng roots in response to exposure to 450 and 47 nm light from light-emitting diodes. Journal of Ginseng Research

  12. Y-H Park, Y-C Kim, SU Park, H-S Lim, JB Kim, B-K Choa, H Bae (2012) Age-dependent distribution of fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng roots cultivated in Korea.  Journal of Ginseng Research

  13. PK Arora, H Bae (2014) Bacterial degradation of chlorophenols and their derivatives. Microbial Cell Factories

  14. PK Arora, H Bae (2014) Biotransformation and chemotaxis of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol by Pseudomonas sp. JHN. Microbial Cell Factories

  15. PK Arora, TK Mohanta, A Srivastava, VP Singh, H Bae (2014) Metabolic degradation pathway of 2-chloro-4-aminophenol for Arthrobacter sp. SPG. Microbial Cell Factories

  16. PK Arora, H Bae (2015) Biodegradation of 4-chloroindole by Exiguobacterium sp. PMA. Journal of Hazardous Materials

  17. TK Mohanta, PK Arora, N Mohanta, P Parida, H Bae (2015) Identification of new members of the MAPK gene family in plants shows diverse conserved domains and novel activation loop variants. BMC Genomics

  18. DM Kasote, SS Katyare, MV Hege, H Bae (2015) Significance of antioxidant potential of plants and its relevance to therapeutic applications. Interntional Journal of Biological Sciences (BRIC highly cited paper)

  19. TK Mohanta, N Mohanta,YK Mohanta, H Bae (2016) Genome-wide identification of calcium dependent protein kinase gene family In plant lineage shows presence of novel D-x-D and D-E-L motifs in EF-hand domain. Frontiers in Plant Science

  20. TK Mohanta, Y-H Park, H Bae (2016) Novel genomic and evolutionary insight of WRKY transcription factor in plant lineage. Scientific Reports

  21. RC Mishra, R Ghosh, H Bae (2016) Plant acoustics: in the search of a sound mechanism for sound signaling in plants. Journal of Experimental Botany

  22. R Ghosh, RC Mishra, B Choi, YS Kwon, DW Bae, S-C Park, M-J Jeong, H Bae (2016) Exposure to sound vibration leads to frequency-specific transcriptomic, proteomic and hormonal changes in Arabidopsis. Scientific Reports. Evaluated at F1000 (BRIC 한빛사

  23. R Ghosh, MA Gururani, LN Ponpandian, RC Mishra, S-Cl Park,  M-J Jeong, H Bae (2017) Expression analysis of sound vibration-regulated genes by touch treatments in Arabidopsis. Frontiers in Plant Science

  24. TK Mohanta, P Kumar, H Bae (2017) Genomics and Evolutionary Aspect of calcium signaling event in calmodulin and calmodulin-like proteins in plants. BMC Plant Biology

  25. B Choi, R Ghosh, MA Gururani, G Shanmugam, J Jeon, J Kim, S-C Park, M-J Jeong, K-H Han, D-W Bae, H Bae (2017) Positive regulatory role of sound vibration treatment in Arabidopsis thaliana against Botrytis cinerea infection. Scientific Reports

  26. EK Chowdhury, J Jeon, SO Rim, Y-H Park, SK Lee, H Bae (2017) Distribution and diversity of bacterial endophytes in mountain cultivated ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) in Korea. Scientific Reports

  27. TK Mohanta, H Bae (2017) Analysis of genomic tRNA revealed presence of novel tRNAs in Oryza sativaFrontiers in Genetics

  28. Y-H Park, Y Kim, RC Mishra, H Bae (2017). Fungal endophytes inhabiting mountain-cultivated ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer): Diversity and biocontrol activity against ginseng pathogens. Scientific Reports

  29. TK Mohanta, AS Syed, F Ameen, H Bae (2017). Novel Genomic and Evolutionary Perspective of Cyanobacterial tRNAs. Frontiers in Genetics

  30. MEK Chowdhury, H Bae (2018) Bacterial endophytes isolated from mountain-cultivated ginseng (Panax ginseng Mayer) have biocontrol potential against ginseng pathogens. Biological Control

  31. Y-H Park, RC Mishra, SY, H Kim, C-H Park, S-T Seo, H Bae (2018) Endophytic Trichoderma citrinoviride isolated from mountain-cultivated ginseng (Panax ginseng) has great potential as a biocontrol agent against ginseng pathogens. Journal of Ginseng Research

  32. H Kim, SO Rim, H Bae (2018)  Antimicrobial potential of metabolites extracted from ginseng bacterial endophyte Burkholderia stabilis against ginseng pathogens. Biological Control

  33. M Ryu, RC Mishra, J Jeon, SK Lee,  BS Hwang, H Bae (2018) Drought-induced susceptibility for Cenangium ferruginosum leads to progression of Cenangium-dieback disease in Pinus koraiensis. Scientific Reports

  34. Y-H Park, RC Mishra, S Yoon, H Kim, C-H Park, S-T Seo, H Bae (2019) Endophytic Trichoderma citrinoviride isolated from mountain-cultivated ginseng (Panax ginseng) has great potential as a biocontrol agent against ginseng pathogens. Journal of Ginseng Research

  35. Y Liu, LN Ponpandian, H Kim, J Jeon, BS Hwang, SK Lee, H Bae (2019) Bacterial endophytes of pine trees across Korea and their nematicidal activity against pine wood nematode. Scientific Reports 

  36. LN Ponpandian, G Shanmugam, J Jeon, Y-Hn Park, SK Lee, H Bae (2019) Molecular characterization of bacterial endophytes from four Pinus species and their nematicidal activity against pine wood nematode. Scientific Reports 

  37. H Kim, TK Mohanta, Y-H Park, S-C Park, G Shanmugam, J-S Park, J Jeon, H Bae (2020) Complete genome sequence of the mountain-cultivated ginseng endophyte Burkholderia stabilis and its antimicrobial compounds against ginseng root rot disease. Biological Control

  38. LL Chu, JAV Montecillo, H Bae (2020) Recent advances in the metabolic engineering of yeasts for ginsenoside biosynthesis. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 

  39. P Tiwari, T Khare, V Shriram, H Bae*, V Kumar* (2021) Plant synthetic biology for producing potent phyto-antimicrobials to combat antimicrobial resistance. Biotechnology Advances  (BRIC 한빛사

  40. Tiwari P, Srivastava Y, Bae H (2021) Trends in pharmaceutical design of endophytes as anti-infective. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry (21)1572-1586 May 23  DOI : 10.2174/1568026621666210524093234

  41. Chu LL, Bae H (2022) Bacterial endophytes from ginseng and biotechnological application. Journal of Ginseng Research 46 : 1-10

  42. Ali S, Tyagi A, Mushtaq M, Al-Mahmoudi H, Bae H (2022) Harnessing plant microbiome for mitigating arsenic toxicity in sustainable agriculture. Environmental Pollution 1;300:118940. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2022.118940.

  43. Montecillo JAV, Bae H (2022) Reclassification of Brevibacterium frigoritolerans as Peribacillus frigoritolerans comb. nov. based on phylogenomics and multiple molecular synapomorphies. International Journal of Systemic and Evolutionary Microbiology 72(5)

  44. Ali S, Tyagi A, Park S, Mir RA, Mushtaq M, Bhat B, Mahmoudi H, Bae H (2022) Decoding the plant microbiome to ameliorate agricultures thirst: Mechanisms and perspectives.  Environmental and Experimental Botany 201: 104933 (1-19 pages)

  45. Montecillo JAV, Bae H (2022) Koranimine, a potential nematicidal compounds from the endophytic bacterium Peribacillus frigoritolerans. Scientific Reports 12:18883

  46. Tiwari P, Kang S, Bae H (2023) Plant-endophyte associations: Rich yet under-explored sources of novel bioactive molecules and applications. Microbiological Research 266, 127241

  47. Tyagi A, Ali S, Ramakrishna G, Singh A, Park S, Mahmoudi H, Bae H (2023) Revisiting the role of polyamines in plant growth and abiotic stress resilience: mechanisms, cross talk and future perspectives. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation

  48. Tyagi A, Ali S, Park S, Bae H (2023) Assessing the effect of sound vibrations on plant neurotransmitters in Arabidopsis. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation

  49. S Ali, A Tyagi, S Rajarammohan, Z Mir, M Mushtaq, H Bae (2023) Revisiting Alternaria-host interactions: New insights on its pathogenesis, defense mechanisms and control strategies in economically important crops. Scientia Horticulturae 322 (2023) 112424

  50. S Ali, A Tyagi, H Bae (2023) ROS interplay between plant growth and stress biology: challenges and future perspectives. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 203(2023)108032  

  51. S Ali, A Tyagi, S. Park, H Bae (2023) Deciphering the role of mechanosensitive channels in plant root biology: perception, signaling, and adaptive responses. Planta (2023)258:105

  52. S Ali, A Tyagi, S. Park, H Bae (2024) Understanding the mechanobiology of phytoacoustics through molecular lens: Mechanisms and future perspectives. Journal of Advanced Research S2090-1232(23)00398-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2023.12.011. (BRIC 한빛사!/list)

Lunch with lab members (December 20, 201
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